A Perfect Turkish Flag, thanks to Raquel!
Red flag with a white crescent and star.
The star and the crescent are Muslim symbols but also have a long pre-Islamic past in Asia Minor. The basic form of the national flag was apparently established in 1793 under Sultan Selim III, when the green flags used by the navy were changed to red and a white crescent and multipointed star were added.
Many traditions explain the star and crescent symbol. It is known that Diana was the patron goddess of Byzantium, and that her symbol was a moon. In 330, the EmperorConstantine rededicated the city - which he called Constantinople - to the Virgin Mary, whose star symbol was superimposed over the crescent.
There are some legends as well, according to which a reflection of the moon occulting a star, appearing in pools of blood after a battle in 1448, led to the adoption of the Turkish flag by Sultan Murad II according to one legend. Others refer to a dream of the first Ottoman Emperor in which a crescent and star appeared from his chest and expanded, presaging the dynasty's seizure of Constantinople.